The Taḥdid nihāyāt al-amākin li-taṣḥīḥ masāfāt al-masākin (“Determination of the Coordinates of Places for the Correction of Distances Between Cities”) is al-Bīrūnī’s masterpiece in mathematical geography. However, he lived well into his seventies, and, since some of his surviving works are not mentioned in this index, the index is a partial list at best. He wrote some 150 books, about half of them on astronomy or mathematics.The others explored a wide range of subjects, from physics to gems to world cultures.. Al-Biruni was born on September 4, 973, in Khwarezm, in what is now Uzbekistan.Little is known of his early life. [62] is a platform for academics to share research papers. [49], Similar to later Asharis, such as al-Ghazali, al-Biruni is famous for vehemently defending[50] the majority Sunni position that the universe has a beginning, being a strong supporter of creatio ex nihilo, specifically refuting the philosopher Avicenna in a multiple letter correspondence. It was only hundreds of years later in the West, that his books became read and referenced again, especially his book on India which became relevant to the British Empire's activity in India from the 17th century. The rest of the book details all the various projections of astrolabe parts, mainly retes (star projections), that al-Bīrūnī was familiar with or could imagine. [88][89], 11th-century Persian scholar and polymath, ابوریحان محمد بن احمد البیرونی, An imaginary rendition of Al Biruni on a 1973, Mathematics, astronomy and invention of minutes and seconds, تحقيق ما للهند من مقولة معقولة في العقل أو مرذولة, الآثار الباقية عن القرون الخالية, التفهيم لصناعة التنجيÙ, الجماهر في معرفة الجواهر, Akhtar, Zia. Al Biruni was a Persian scholar, astronomer, mathematician, ethnographist, anthropologist, historian, and geographer. Biruni's writing was very poetic, which may diminish some of the historical value of the work for modern times. In the latter work, for example, is the most elaborate treatment of the Jewish calendar—more extensive than any surviving medieval Hebrew source and much more scientifically reasoned than any other treatment that this calendar had received up to that time. [23] His estimate was given as 12,803,337 cubits, so the accuracy of his estimate compared to the modern value depends on what conversion is used for cubits. [76], After Al-Biruni's death, in the Ghaznavid dynasty and following centuries his work was not built on, nor referenced. History of Religion", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN viii. Abu Rayhan al-Biruni /ælbɪˈruːni/ (973 – after 1050) was an Iranian scholar and polymath during the Islamic Golden Age. [48], Al-Biruni was the person who first subdivided the hour sexagesimally into minutes, seconds, thirds and fourths in 1000 while discussing Jewish months. [a] He was an impartial writer on customs and creeds of various nations, and was given the title al-Ustadh ("The Master") for his remarkable description of early 11th-century India. [85], A film about his life, Abu Raykhan Beruni, was released in the Soviet Union in 1974.[86]. Omissions? "Al-Beruni: The First Anthropologist". In that context he wrote of precious metals and gems, which were considered foundational for any economic system, and he wrote of diamonds and their particular social importance. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. The Ghaznavid and Seljuq periods produced first-rate scholars such as al-Bīrūnī (died 1048) who, writing in Arabic, investigated Hinduism... Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. He did not go on about deeds that each one carried out during their reign, which keeps in line with Al-Biruni's mission to try to stay away from political histories. Al-Bīrūnī lived during a period of unusual political turmoil in the eastern Islamic world. "Al-Biruni (973–1048)." Encyclopedia of World Biography. | History Today", "The Hindu Calendar as Described in Al-Biruni's Masudic Canon", "Kitāb al-tafhÄ«m li-awā'Ä«l á¹£inā'at al-tanjÄ«m كتاب التفهيم لأوائل صناعة التنجيم BÄ«rÅ«nÄ«, Muḥammad ibn Aḥmad بيروني، محمد بن أحمد", "Monument to Be Inaugurated at the Vienna International Centre, 'Scholars Pavilion' donated to International Organizations in Vienna by Iran", "Permanent mission of the Islamic Republic of Iran to the United Nations office – Vienna", "Negareh: Persian Scholars Pavilion at United Nations Vienna, Austria",, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN ii. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Al-Biruni spent the first twenty-five years of his life in Khwarezm where he studied Islamic jurisprudence, theology, grammar, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, philosophy and also dabbled in the field of physics and most other sciences as well. The Kitab al-Tafhim is without doubt the most important of the early works of science in Persian and serves as a rich source for Persian prose and lexicography as well as for the knowledge of the Quadrivium whose subjects it covers in a masterly fashion", Shams al-Mo'ali Abol-hasan Ghaboos ibn Wushmgir, "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN – Encyclopaedia Iranica", "Al-BÄ«rÅ«nÄ« | Persian scholar and scientist", "Al-Biruni: Father of Comparative Religion", "به مناسبت روز بزرگداشت ابوریحان بیرونی و مهندس نقشه‌بردار، مراسمی شهریور ماه سال جاری ازسوی جامعه صنفی مهندسان نقشه ‌بردار ایران با حضور مقامات و مسئولین حوزه مهندسی و نقشه‏برداری، مسئولین سازمان نقشه برداری کشور، پیشکسوتان این رشته و اعضاء جامعه برگزار گردید | سازمان نقشه برداری کشور", "Al-Biruni and the Political History of India", "So, Who Did Discover America? He served more than six different princes, all of whom were known for their bellicose activities and a good number of whom met their ends in violent deaths. [23] Al-Biruni was able to make much progress in his study over the frequent travels that he went on throughout the lands of India. He has been variously called as the "founder of Indology", "Father of Comparative Religion",[11][9][12][13] "Father of modern geodesy", and the first anthropologist. Answer: Al-Biruni was conscious of the problems involved in understanding strange countries. These are: Al-Biruni arrived in Ghazni as a hostage by Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni. Taken together, these two works preserve the best premodern description of the cultures al-Bīrūnī came to know. In his search for…, …as the scholar and scientist al-Bīrūnī or the poet-mathematician Omar Khayyam. Of his own personal background even less is known. He posed as an outsider to both Arabic and Persian as he evaluated their scientific utility, and he enunciated his now famous personal preference “to be criticized in Arabic rather than be praised in Persian.”. leading protagonist Al-Biruni, a scholar and mathematician, viewed natural law as the 'law of the jungle', and argued that the antagonism between human beings can only be overcome", Kaminski, Joseph J. The two major cities in this region were Kath and Jurjaniyya. Accepting the definite demise of the Afrighids at the hands of the Ma'munids, he made peace with the latter who then ruled Khwarezm. He carried on a lengthy correspondence and sometimes heated debate with Ibn Sina, in which Biruni repeatedly attacks Aristotle's celestial physics: he argues by simple experiment that vacuum must exist;[42] he is "amazed" by the weakness of Aristotle's argument against elliptical orbits on the basis that they would create vacuum;[43] he attacks the immutability of the celestial spheres;[44] and so on. RAIN. Geography", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN vi. Biruni documented everything about India just as it happened. "The Trajectory of the Development of Islamic Thought—A Comparison Between Two Earlier and Two Later Scholars. Besides being a challenging mathematical problem, determining the direction of Mecca is a religious requirement for the performance of the ordained five daily prayers in Islam. [19], Al-Biruni, which means "from Birun", is known as Biruni (Persian: بیرونی‎) in Persian and as Al-Biruni (Arabic: البيروني‎) in Arabic. He said this in the context of demonstrating his total disgust with flattery, even when it was being directed at him. In it he not only defended the role of the mathematical sciences against the attacks of religious scholars who could not understand the utility of the mathematical sciences but also detailed all that one needed to know about determining longitudes and latitudes on land. Al-BÄ«r Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography | 2008 | Copyright, "Abu Rayhan al-Biruni." At the end of 1017, Sultan Mahmud Gaznevi captured Khorezm. Born in Kath, Khwarezm in Western Central Asia, he lived between 973 and 1048. He was the first prominent Muslim Indologist was one of the greatest intellectuals of the eleventh century. [58], Biruni wrote a pharmacopoeia, the "Kitab al-saydala fi al-tibb" (Book on the Pharmacopoeia of Medicine). There is only one hint, in a book known only by its title from other sources, Ibṭāl al-buhtān bi-īrād al-burhān (Disqualifying Falsehood by Producing Proof), that he ever approached such speculative cosmological questions. He classified gems by what he considered their primary physical properties, such as specific gravity and hardness, rather than the common practice of the time of classifying them by colour. 2004. He studied mathematics and astronomy under Abu Nasr Mansur. Some suggest that his reasons for refuting astrology were due to the methods used by astrologers being based on pseudoscience rather than empiricism and also due to the views of astrologers conflicting with Sunni Islam.[39][40]. BÄ«rÅ«nÄ«'s catalogue of his own literary production up to his 65th lunar/63rd solar year (the end of 427/1036) lists 103 titles divided into 12 categories: astronomy, mathematical geography, mathematics, astrological aspects and transits, astronomical instruments, chronology, comets, an untitled category, astrology, anecdotes, religion, and books he no longer possesses. Its expressive title, Taḥqīq mā li-l-hind min maqūlah maqbūlah fī al-ʿaql aw mardhūlah (“Verifying All That the Indians Recount, the Reasonable and the Unreasonable”), says it all; it includes all the lore that al-Bīrūnī could gather about India and its science, religion, literature, and customs. Since Kashmir and Varanasi were out of reach, Biruni had probably the books beeruni from these two places. Al-Biruni has thrown a light on caste system prevailing in the Hindu society. During this time he wrote his study of India, finishing it around 1030. In 1017, Mahmud of Ghazni took Rey. A traveller from Arabia circa 1000 AD, who first described Malabar in his writings. [72] Dr. Edward C. Sachau compares it to "a magic island of quiet, impartial research in the midst of a world of clashing swords, burning towns, and plundered temples. This question is most difficult to solve. He was a colleague of the fellow philosopher and physician Abū Alī ibn Sīnā (Avicenna), the historian, philosopher and ethicist Ibn Miskawayh, in a university and science center established by prince Abu al-Abbas Ma’mun Khawarazmshah. Bibliography", "BĪRŪNĪ, ABŪ RAYḤĀN iii. [72] He explains that Hinduism and Islam are totally different from each other. A short while after al-Bīrūnī found refuge in the Sāmānid capital of Bukhara, a prince of another local dynasty, Qābūs ibn Voshmgīr, was also dethroned and sought help from the Sāmānids to regain his throne.