There the Jansenist group began about 1637 to educate a few boys, and by 1646 it had established the Little Schools of Port-Royal in Paris itself. This conservatism was accentuated under Manchu rule and resulted in sterility and stagnation. On Nov. 10, 1966, a decree was issued outlining the new policy in the field of general secondary education. Various measures initiated by schools to equalize opportunities for less-advantaged groups include establishing closer and more systematic involvement of teachers with parents (rather than only when problems arise), arranging for parent-teacher conferences to take place at convenient locations and times, making information about the workings of the education system and individual schools available in the home language, and focusing on children’s strengths and abilities. Between 1999 and 2005, tertiary education enrollment grew by 45 million students to 138 million, with Brazil, China, India, Nigeria, Cuba, and South Korea showing the greatest gains. The Benedictine monasteries became the chief centres of learning and the source of the many literate scribes needed for the civil administration. Filial piety, especially emphasizing respect for the elderly, was considered to be the most important virtue. The educational reforms of 1958 pursued the aim of combining general and polytechnical education with vocational training in a way that directed the bulk of young people after the age of 15 straight into “production.”. The first two years of the lower secondary school constituted the “orientation stage.” Long governed by entrance examination, the choice of secondary school was now made by the parents. Born in Moravia, he was forced by the circumstances of the Thirty Years’ War to wander constantly from place to place—Germany, Poland, England, Sweden, Hungary, Transylvania, and Holland—and was deprived of his wife, children, and property. The ensuing feudal period in Japan dates from the year 1192 (the establishment of the Kamakura shogunate) to 1867 (the decline of the Tokugawa shogunate). (The term college in all cases here is used in the continental European sense to refer to secondary institutions, not institutions of higher education.). In addition, there was established the Aufbauschule, which was a six-year school following completion of the seventh year of the elementary school, and the Deutsche Oberschule, a nine-year school that required two modern foreign languages and stressed German culture. With these improvements, however, the educational system of the country had become top-heavy. The indictment and execution of Socrates by what Plato considered an ignorant society turned him away from Athens and public life. The creativity and originality that had brightened previous periods of history were now absent. According to the census of 1897, only 24 percent of the population above the age of nine were literate. In Australia, particular motivating factors were the dramatic increases in population and economic growth and the recognized inadequacy of existing schools. The instructional fare was a rudimentary combination of religious instruction and literacy skills, perhaps supplemented by some practical work. Discussions involving government officials, educators, parents, and students were initiated in the mid-1980s and were formalized in the 1990s. Articulation or interface programs allowed preschool children to work together with first graders, sharing instruction. Importance of Education Essay (150 words): Education is fundamentally a valuable asset for humans. The process of education has all along been discussed in terms of its aims. He is regarded as one of the founders of theoretical pedagogy, injecting both metaphysics and psychology into the study of how people learn. In the Middle Ages, the grammar schools (especially for the education of the clergy) had developed, and the humanism of the Renaissance had strengthened this tendency; only those who knew Latin and Greek could be considered educated. Some of these trends stem from advances in communications and international travel. Throughout the middle period of the century, similar sectarian compromises were found in other Australian colonies. There was no stable government. In the southwestern part of the continent the government did not establish any schools at all, relying completely on missionary activity. Education for whites was controlled by the Minister of National Education, and provincial–federal coordination was accomplished through a National Education Council and a Committee of Heads of Education. This example was shortly followed in Saxony. One was from the Christian missionaries and the other from a “semirationalist” movement. In addition, the amount of scientific—as distinct from merely technical—knowledge grew continually. The deterioration of Mughal power in India, the final expulsion of French rivals in the Seven Years’ War, and the virtual appropriation of Bengal and Bihar in a treaty of 1765 had all made the company a ruling power. Although the technical institutes and community colleges were expanded after 1970, demand continued to increase for these programs. Social-reconstructionist education was based on the theory that society can be reconstructed through the complete control of education. Article 17 of the constitution of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh declares that it is the duty of the state to provide education to all its children to such stage as may be determined by law. The inclusion of all children and youth was part of a general integrative trend that accelerated following World War II. Eminent researchers in the field advanced knowledge of behaviour modification, child development, and motivation. They arrived under the auspices of Patriarch Nikon, who was then engaged in correcting what he saw as errors in Orthodox church books, but their appearance aroused deep suspicion on the part of the Orthodox establishment, many of whose members displayed little interest in or sympathy for the establishment of schools, an undertaking the newcomers considered to be of primary importance. In addition, the political indoctrination of the leftist Japan Teachers’ Union was hindered, and moral education was reintroduced as a requirement at the elementary and lower secondary levels. Within this structure the rector of a university headed a teaching body, recruited by the state and supervised by an inspectorate, ranging through various grades up to the university council. It has been rightly observed by B.D.