Cramer, Duncan and Dennis Howitt. Independent variables represent those factors that might influence the behavior under study. Dependent variable: What is being studied/measured. In this hypothesis, the independent (causal) variable is civic engagement and the dependent variables (or effects) are the qualities of government. When the independent variable affects the dependent variable only by way of a mediating variable (sort of like a chain reaction), it is said to be an intervening relationship. The independent variable is the variable the experimenter changes or controls and is assumed to have a direct effect on the dependent variable. The Dependent and independent variables Are sets of logical attributes that are sought to observe and measure as changing factors in scientific or social studies.. Sociology Index - Internet Research. Studies analyzing dependent variables look at how and why they differ from one another. Examples of independent variable in the following topics: Formulating the Hypothesis. This other variable is the dependent variable, or the variable we think is affected by the independent variable (see Figure 2.3 “Causal Path for the Independent and Dependent Variable”). The dependent variable is the effect, or thing that is changed. A change in an independent variable is likely to be associated with a change in the dependent variable, but the occurrence, size, and direction of the change may differ from one individual or occasion to the next. An independent variable is a variable that influences the dependent variable. In statistical analysis the dependent variable (usually designated Y) is a function of one or more independent variables (usually designated as X). Independent Variable The variable that is stable and unaffected by the other variables you are trying to measure. For example, in a basic study, the researcher would establish one form of human behavior as the independent variable and observe the influence it has on a dependent variable. A dependent variable is one that has been identified as the manifestation of some social phenomenon and that is caused by, or associated with, other independent variables. It refers to the condition of an experiment that is systematically manipulated by the investigator. INDEPENDENT VARIABLE. The independent variable is one that the researchers either manipulate (such as the amount of something) or that already exists but is not dependent upon other variables (such as the age of the participants). Elaboration is an effective (albeit somewhat tedious) means of weeding out spurious and intervening relationships. Independent variable: What the scientist changes or what changes on its own. In attempting to find out and discover how the world works, man has used experimentation to answer those questions, and one of the most widely used and recognized methods has been that of cause and effect relationships. The independent variable (sometimes known as the manipulated variable) is the variable whose change isn't affected by any other variable in the experiment. Two examples of common independent variables are gender and educational level. An independent variable is a variable we think can affect another variable. independent variable Within a particular study, analysis, or model, the independent (or explanatory) variable is the social element whose characteristics or variations shape and determine the dependent variable: for example, the age of marriage can help explain the likelihood of divorce. In social science research, multiple observations are used to address this problem. ; For example, if the hypothesis is a causal explanation, it will involve at least one dependent variable and one independent variable. How does gender (the independent variable) affect rate of income (the dependent variable)? It is the presumed cause. The independent variable is that variable assumed to be the causal variable. Causality examines the world in terms of variables, independent variable and dependent variable.An independent variable is typically the cause, while a dependent variable is the effect.