Archaeologists argue about how easily groups made the transition from a way of life based on hunting and gathering to one centred on herding or agriculture, but an increasing number of excavations suggest that these boundaries were often permeable. During this time early humans also developed those social, cognitive, and linguistic traits that distinguish Homo sapiens. In the long run these new groups of herders and farmers transformed the hunter-gatherer way of life. Archaeological and historical inquiry has been extremely uneven in the countries of the Southern African subcontinent, with Namibia the least and South Africa the most intensely studied. Cattle and milking appear somewhat later than small stock and were perhaps acquired from iron-using farmers in western Zimbabwe or northeastern South Africa. Obviously, the situation is not the same in all the countries. Labour was allocated by gender, with men responsible for hunting game, women for snaring small animals, collecting plant foods, and undertaking domestic chores. Expectedly, the region has places that are mountainous, coastal regions, and low-lying regions. Overall, 180,000 people with HIV died of TB-related deaths in 2018. The region is generally drained eastward toward the Indian Ocean, a pattern exemplified by the largest rivers, the Zambezi and Limpopo. French Somaliland. Four main types of vegetation are found: savanna woodlands (known as miombo forest) in the north, a series of dry woodlands to the south of these, arid and semiarid grassland, scrubland, and bushland in the Namib and Kalahari deserts and their environs, and Mediterranean vegetation along the southern coast. In the second half of the 15th century Great Zimbabwe came to an abrupt end. They include: 1. The archaeological remains of nomadic pastoralists living in impermanent polities are frustratingly sparse, but in the upper Zambezi River valley, southwestern Zimbabwe, and Botswana, herding and pottery appear late in the 1st millennium bce. Similarities between Toutswe and the material culture of later sites in the Limpopo valley and Zimbabwe suggest that Toutswe also may have inspired new forms of social and economic organization for peoples further afield. The relationships established among hunters, herders, and agriculturalists over more than 2,000 years of socioeconomic change ranged from total resistance to total assimilation. Contrary to the popular view that the hunter-gatherer way of life was impoverished and brutish, Late Stone Age people were highly skilled and had a good deal of leisure and a rich spiritual life, as their cave paintings and rock engravings show. While exact dating of cave paintings is problematic, paintings at the Apollo 11 Cave in southern Namibia appear to be some 26,000 to 28,000 years old. Known locally as Mosi-oa-Tunya, or … Their evolution into the species Homo habilis and then into the species Homo erectus—which displayed the larger brain, upright posture, teeth, and hands resembling those of modern humans and from whom Homo sapiens almost certainly evolved—is still fiercely debated. Swaziland. In terms of the environment, the region has several eco-regions that are full of diversity such as savannahs, grasslands, riparian zones, karoo, and bushveld. At 9th- and 10th-century sites such as Schroda and Bambandyanalo in the Limpopo valley, the ivory and cattle trade seems to have been of major importance, but later sites such as Mapungubwe (a hilltop above Bambandyanalo), Manekweni (in southwestern Mozambique), and Great Zimbabwe, which date from the late 11th to the mid 15th century, owed their prosperity to the export of gold. The connections between australopithecines and earlier potentially hominin forms remain unclear, while a number of species of australopithecines have been identified. Farther west, however, there are greater continuities with the earlier wares, while in southeastern Africa locally driven increases in population and cattle—which led to expansion into less favourable environments but which also brought new ideas and new methods of political control—may hold the key. Environmental changes do not seem to have been directly responsible, while the evidence for social change is elusive. Home to many cultures, the region was initially occupied by native African tribes like the San, Pygmies, and Khoikhoi. A recent study that was done in eleven cities in the region showed that only 17% of the households were deemed to be secure in matters relating to food security. The UN subregion of Southern Africa consists of five countries in the southernmost part of the continent-- Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, Zimbabwe. Participants strongly believed that the media should be free from state control and entrusted to professional journalists who, in areas such as Nigeria and southern Africa, have maintained a courageous commitment to press freedom. These contacts diminished with the rise of Islam, and the east coast became part of the Indian Ocean trading network. In some areas the expansion inevitably led to conflict as the newcomers came up against settled communities; in others the indigenous inhabitants were gradually absorbed, while elsewhere sparsely inhabited, colder, and more arid mountain lands were colonized. For all the contestants in contemporary Southern Africa there has been a conscious struggle to control the past in order to legitimate the present and lay claim to the future. Is Jersey Part of the UK? African elephant in the Okavango grasslands, Botswana. Although they do not typify the later Iron Age as a whole, the conspicuous consumption at these sites and the bias in oral sources toward centralized states means they have attracted perhaps a disproportionate share of scholarly attention. Similar pottery has been found stretching from northeastern Tanzania and coastal Kenya through southern Zimbabwe into eastern South Africa, Mozambique, and Swaziland. The motives of the artists remain obscure, but many paintings appear linked to the trance experiences of medicine men, in which the antelope (eland) was a key symbol. Author of. EU and Eastern and Southern Africa. Benin, Guinea, Mali, Ivory Coast, Mauritania, Niger, Senegal, Burkina Faso. It seems likely, however, that a movement of immigrants into Southern Africa occurred in two streams and was part of a wider expansion of populations speaking Bantu languages that ultimately derived from the Niger-Congo languages of western Africa some 2,000 to 3,000 years ago. At the beginning of the 21st century, several transfrontier parks were opening, including Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, the first transnational park, and the Great Limpopo Transfrontier Park, among the largest parks in the world. Southern African climates are seasonal, ranging from arid to semiarid and from temperate to tropical. It was, nevertheless, of considerable size by the beginning of the 16th century; the capital alone contained several thousand people. Colorful Morocco is in the first place among the most popular travel spots in this part of the world, the second place belongs to South Africa, followed by Egypt and Tunisia. 1. Southern Zimbabwe and much of South Africa are within a region of scrublands and grasslands known as the veld. Even in the apparently inhospitable and isolated Kalahari it is now clear that there was intense interaction and exchange between hunter-gatherers and food producers, leading to the development of hybrid amalgams of pastoralism, agriculture, and foraging. South Africa. Skilled craftsmen made elegant pottery, sculpture, and fine bone tools for local use and for trade, while the presence of spindle whorls suggests local weaving. A significant number and diversity of wildlife remains in these regions despite the considerable amount of human interference that these areas have experienced. In the colonial period, destitute Khoekhoe often reverted to a hunter-gatherer existence; herders and hunters were also frequently physically indistinguishable and used identical stone tools. Although this number is steadily falling, the region accounts for more than half the total number of TB-related deaths among people living with HIV i… Coastal plains abut the Indian Ocean in Mozambique and the Atlantic in Angola and Namibia. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. The nature of these transitions and the differences among the sites are still poorly understood, and, again, archaeologists disagree as to whether the changes can be explained by local developments or are best explained by the arrival of migrating populations. There can be little doubt that for hundreds of thousands of years Southern Africa, like eastern Africa, was in the forefront of human development and technological innovation. Thus, the Dutch, and many subsequent social scientists, believed they belonged to a single population following different modes of subsistence: hunting, foraging, beachcombing, and herding. The divisions are made based on certain criteria. Despite the ever-increasing number of radiocarbon dates available for the many Late Stone Age sites excavated in Southern Africa, the reasons for changed consumption patterns and variations in technology are poorly understood. The Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost sovereign state in Africa. Urban food security has proven to be a difficult thing to study. In South Africa, although restrictions have been eased, newspapers still retain a high degree of self-censorship." Individually, South Africa is, unsurprisingly, the strongest economy among all the countries. As the new culture spread, larger, more successful farming communities were established; in many areas the new way of life was adopted by the hunter-gatherers. Engraving of a rhinoceros, an example of San rock painting and engraving in South Africa. The South African Government has also arranged with donor countries to engage directly with NGOs on relevant projects. Toll Free: 888/683-4886. Omissions? Coverage of the region’s physical and human geography can be found in the article Africa. This is as true of prehistory as of the more recent past. Recent data shows that low-income households living in urban areas are having problems getting food. Some of the earliest fossils associated with Homo sapiens, dated from about 120,000 to 80,000 years ago, have been found in South Africa at the Klasies River Mouth Cave in Eastern Cape, while at Border Cave on the South Africa–Swaziland border a date of about 90,000 years ago has been claimed for similar Middle Stone Age (150,000 to 30,000 years ago) skeletal remains. Archaeologists are divided over whether all these cultural and economic attributes arrived with a single group of new immigrants speaking a new language or resulted from a more piecemeal development of different skills and the adoption of new techniques by indigenous hunter-gatherers, as has already been suggested in the case of herding among the Khoekhoe. For example, the political instability and poor leadership in the Democratic Republic of Congo have seen to it that the fertile soils and favorable climatic conditions are not fully utilized for farming activities. Southern Rhodesia. Eventually, the Bantu expansion came and had some influence on the native tribes. For the indigenous people of Southern Africa the frontiers between different modes of subsistence presented new dangers and opportunities. The bigger chunk, 57%, of the households were deemed to be in severe states of food insecurity. The Kalahari desert forms the central depression of the Southern African plateau. Algeria. The full list is shown … The controversies in Southern African history begin with the discovery of a fossilized hominin skull in a limestone cave at Taung near the Harts River north of Kimberley in 1924, followed in 1936 by discoveries in similar caves in the Transvaal (now Limpopo and Gauteng provinces) and Northern Cape province, in South Africa. An emerging area of concern in the region is urban food security. Who is telling what history for which Africa is a question that needs constantly to be addressed. Malawi – An Eastern Africa Country in the UN Scheme or system. Germany +49 176 324 61953. Along the South African border, there are complex and eye-catching plateaus that make up enormous mountain structures. Southern Africa, southernmost region of the African continent, comprising the countries of Angola, Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. Until the 1960s, population explosion and migration were the common explanations; subsequent explanations have stressed adaptation. Namibia 3. Swaziland The large number of distinctive Late Stone Age (30,000 to 2,000 years ago) industries that emerged reflect increasing specialization as hunter-gatherers exploited different environments, often moving seasonally between them, and developed different subsistence strategies. Some ethnic groups are unique to South Africa while others like Basotho crossed the border into the country. By the second half of the 1st millennium ce, farming communities were living in relatively large, semipermanent villages. Late Stone Age peoples used bows and arrows and a variety of snares and traps for hunting, as well as grindstones and digging sticks for gathering plant food; with hooks, barbed spears, and wicker baskets they also were able to catch fish and thus exploit rivers, lakeshores, and seacoasts more effectively. Lesotho 4. Can you figure out which ones they are on this map quiz game? New kingdoms and chiefdoms were formed and older ones disintegrated, the result of both internal and external agency, while new ethnic and cultural identities began to be forged in the hazardous new world resulting from Africa’s incorporation into the Atlantic economy. The landlocked countries of Southern Africa include Here is an alphabetical list of all countries in South Africa: Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, and South Africa. Acheulean industry appeared during the Early Stone Age (c. 2,500,000 to 150,000 years ago) and was characterized by the use of simple stone hand axes, choppers, and cleavers. UN Women also has a Somalia Program has recently established … Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe. Here is a brief introduction to the 10 Southern African nations. South Africa, formally the Republic of South Africa, is a republic in Africa, the southernmost part of the African continent. Large quantities of stone were brought to build walls on these hilltop sites, which suggests considerable labour. Victoria Falls, Zimbabwe and Zambia. (2005 est.) In the Quirimbas Archipelago, which is a 250km stretch of coral islands, mangrove-covered Ibo Island has colonial-era … Chad, Gabon, Republic of the Congo, Central African Republic. Thus, between the 17th and 19th centuries there was migration of northern and eastern Shona speakers into the centre and south of the plateau, while in South Africa new land was colonized by cattle-raising peoples, as the stone-walled sites in the southern Highveld indicate. Comoros – An Eastern Africa Country in the UN Scheme or system. The 10 Southern African countries. Further changes were made after the colonials arrived in Africa. Southern Africa is the southernmost region of Africa. From about the turn of the 1st millennium ce, in some areas of what are now central Zambia, southeastern Zimbabwe, Malawi, and eastern South Africa, changes in ceramic style were paralleled by a change in the location and nature of settlements. In the UN scheme, there are only five countries in the region namely Botswana, South Africa, Lesotho, Namibia, and Swaziland. These developments apparently are associated with the emergence between 20,000 and 15,000 bce of the earliest of the historically recognizable populations of Southern Africa: the Pygmy, San, and Khoekhoe peoples, who were probably genetically related to the ancient population that h evolved in the African subcontinent. Salt, iron implements, pottery, and possibly copper ornaments passed from hand to hand and were traded widely. In Part 2, the focus is on why migrants from one developing country go to another developing country, and what kinds of socioeconomic effects such movements … The seasonality is an important control on plant growth and a regulator of river flows. Pop. It is with the origins of these food-producing communities and their evolution into the contemporary societies of Southern Africa that much of the precolonial history of the subcontinent has been concerned. Through the controlled use of fire, denser, more mobile populations could move for the first time into heavily wooded areas and caves. The consumption of foods that have high calories and generally unhealthy is also a sign of food insecurity in the urban areas. In addition, all the group elements of platinum namely chromium, cobalt, and vanadium are available in huge amounts. Similar problems it faces in economic development include poverty, poor leadership, the HIV/AIDS epidemic, and corruption. By the 8th century Arab traders had begun to visit more southerly harbours, and between the 11th and 15th centuries they founded some three dozen new towns. If you are truly ready for this geography quiz, you should be able to get them all right in less than five seconds! Morocco (see note) Tunisia Some divisions are based on the general direction of the four cardinal points, based on physiographic features, and a few other criteria. European and African interaction from the 15th through the 18th century, European and African interaction in the 19th century, “Legitimate” trade and the persistence of slavery, Increasing violence in other parts of Southern Africa, The Republic of Natalia and the British colony of Natal, Minerals and the scramble for Southern Africa, Angola and Mozambique in the late 19th century, Class and ethnic tensions among white settlers, Christianity and African popular religion, Independence and decolonization in Southern Africa, The consolidation of white rule in Southern Africa,, Public Broadcasting Service - Southern Africa. During historic times hunter-gatherers were organized in loosely knit bands, of which the family was the basic unit, although wider alliances with neighbouring bands were essential for survival. In Southern Africa, history is not a set of neutrally observed and agreed-upon facts: present concerns colour interpretations of even the remote past. There are over one billion people living in the African continent. Springbok in the Kgalagadi Transfrontier Park, Southern Africa. People of European ancestry began migrating to the region in the mid-17th century; they now constitute a sizable minority in South Africa and a much smaller population in Zimbabwe. Is Jersey Part of the EU. This article covers the history of the region from the prehistoric period to the end of the colonial period in the 20th century. Zimbabwe. Other resources include uranium, diamonds, iron, gold, and titanium. Equatorial Guinea. Ethiopia. South Africa +27 82 745-1812. In Namibia the coastal margin includes the extremely dry Namib desert, which, in the south, merges eastward into the great sandy expanse of the Kalahari. The African continent is typically divided up into five regions namely Northern Africa, Eastern Africa, Central Africa, Western Africa, and Southern Africa. With a population of over 170 million and growing, Nigeria is the largest of the countries. Angola – A Central African Country according to the UN system. Droughts are common in much of the region. Both the Donors and the South African Government do planning. Patrilineal and polygynous cattle-keeping farmers thus had immense advantages over communities that lacked these new forms of wealth and social organization. Its successor in the southwest was Torwa, with its centre at Khami; in the north it was replaced by the Mutapa state. Native Europeans (such as the British and Portuguese Africans) and tribes of Asian roots (such as Indian South Africans) showed up in the region. In most of these farming communities land was relatively plentiful, while labour was not, and control over people was therefore of the essence. Greater stratification and more complex social organization were also probably accelerated by the growth of trading with the outside world and by competition for access to it. In later rock paintings there is also the first hint of the advent of new groups of herders and farmers. The extent of migration between developing countries, called South-South migration, and the issues surrounding it remain poorly understood. The island nation of Madagascar is excluded because of its distinct language and cultural heritage. Sand dunes and vegetation at Sossusvlei in the Namib desert, Namibia. UN Women has presence in 13 of these countries: Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) Ethiopia, Kenya, Malawi, Mozambique, Rwanda, South Sudan, Sudan, Tanzania, Uganda, South Africa Multi-Country Office (MCO) and Zimbabwe. Southern Africa: Countries - Map Quiz Game: South Africa is one of only two perforated countries in the world. Wood, bark, and leather were used for tools and clothing, while vegetable foods were also probably more important than their archaeological survival suggests. The larger countries—South Africa, Botswana, Mozambique, Zimbabwe, Zambia, Namibia, and Angola—all have extensive mineral deposits. “Eastern-stream” Bantu speakers, associated with the earliest farming communities in the well-watered eastern half of Southern Africa, date from the 2nd to the 5th century ce. Their homes, diet, and ostentatious burials are in stark contrast to those of the common folk, whose dwellings cluster at the foot of the sites where they probably laboured. Based on the membership in the Southern Africa Development Community (SADC), an extra five countries are added to the list. The interior of Southern Africa consists of a series of undulating plateaus that cover most of South Africa, Namibia, and Botswana and extend into central Angola. Where cattle were meagre, societies were matrilineal and usually matrilocal; men still depended on women for agricultural labour and for bringing young men and children into the household. For some time the significance of these finds and their relationship to the evolution of early humans were unappreciated, perhaps because the finds could not be dated, and stone tools—long regarded as the defining characteristic of early humans—had not been found with them. Many habitats have been extensively modified by agriculture, thus restricting the ranges of certain species that were formerly more widespread. Nevertheless, the appearance of cave art, careful burials, and ostrich-eggshell beads for adornment suggests more sophisticated behaviour and new patterns of culture. By the time coastal peoples were first encountered by literate European observers in the 15th century, many were the recognizable forebears of Southern Africa’s contemporary population. Shifting geographic and political boundaries and changing historiographical perspectives render this impossible. Navigate parenthood with the help of the Raising Curious Learners podcast. The Great Zimbabwe complex, near Masvingo, south-central Zimbabwe. Coastal mountains and escarpments, flanking the high ground, are found in northern Mozambique, South Africa, Namibia, Angola, and along the Mozambique-Zimbabwe border. There are 54 countries in Africa today, according to the United Nations. However, different animals are found in the coastal woodlands of South Africa and in the desert regions to the north and northwest. Neighboring countries include Botswana, Lesotho, Mozambique, Namibia, Swaziland, and Zimbabwe. Located in south part of Africa, Southern Africa is composed of 5 countries. Swaziland. Although they never united politically, these towns developed a common Afro-Arabic, or Swahili, culture and a splendour that amazed the first European arrivals. Which Countries Are Part Of Central Africa? Controversies remain, however. To fight these problems in order to advance the region economically, the nations have come together to establish international bodies that further that agenda such as the SADC. An overview of the landscape of Southern Africa. South Africa 2. Moreover, archaeologists disagree about the routes and modes of dispersal as well as its timing. With the emergence of Homo sapiens, experimentation and regional diversification displaced the undifferentiated Acheulean tool kit, and a far more efficient small blade (also called microlithic) technology evolved. Six ESA countries – Comoros, Madagascar, Mauritius, the Seychelles, Zambia and Zimbabwe – concluded an interim Economic Partnership Agreement with the EU at the end of 2007.. Wildlife species include the likes of white rhinos, blue wildebeest, elephants, impalas, velvet monkeys, and many more. South Africa has a population of approximately 55 million people comprising of diverse culture, religion, origin, and languages. In Mapungubwe and Great Zimbabwe a wealthy and privileged elite built with stone and were buried with gold and copper ornaments, exotic beads, and fine imported pottery and cloth. Chad. Since that time, similar but datable discoveries in eastern Africa as well as discoveries in the Makapansgat Valley in South Africa have made it possible to place the South African remains in sequence and identify them as australopithecines, upright-walking creatures who are the earliest human ancestors. Using this free map quiz game, you can learn about Nigeria and 54 other African countries. Madagascar – An Eastern Africa Country in the UN Scheme or system. Some of the criteria may divide the continent into four (by doing away with Central Africa) or they may include the Horn of Africa as its own region and end up with six subdivisions. Yet the reasons for adaptation are equally unclear and the model equally controversial. These early farmers settled on arable soils along coastal dunes, rivers, and valley basins. Although at first the impact of food production was probably less momentous than is often assumed, agriculture combined with pastoralism and metallurgy could support far larger settled communities than previously had been possible and enabled a more complex social and political organization to develop. Another argument is for the inclusion of Angola in Central Africa. Although many scholars attempt to deduce the nature of Late Stone Age societies by examining contemporary hunter-gatherer societies, this method is fraught with difficulties. While some argue that the shift to livestock raising merely reflects the human impact on the environment as new lands were opened up for grazing animals, others associate the appearance of domestic stock with the emergence of a different and distinctive tradition of ceramics and a characteristic settlement pattern—known as the Central Cattle Pattern—that embodied both the new centrality of cattle and the different nature of hierarchy in these communities. Homo erectus appears to have roamed the open savanna lands of eastern and Southern Africa, collecting fruits and berries—and perhaps roots—and either scavenging or hunting. Our editors will review what you’ve submitted and determine whether to revise the article. The semiarid plains and plateaus that cover much of the region contain animals commonly associated with the East African plains—e.g., antelopes, gazelles, zebras, elephants, and the big cats. While half of the population experiences hunger, at least 61% of the population is mildly obese or overweight. The Black peoples of Southern Africa—the overwhelming majority of the region’s population—can be divided into speakers of two language families, Khoisan and Bantu. Its elevation rises to the Great Escarpment, which flanks the plateau in an almost unbroken line from the Zambezi River to Angola. South Africa. This does not mean, however, that these societies were static and unchanging. It also includes a small, sub-Atlantic archipelago of the Prince Edward Islands. When Europeans first rounded the Cape of Good Hope, they encountered herding people, whom they called Hottentots (a name now considered pejorative) but who called themselves Khoekhoe, meaning “men of men.” At that time they inhabited the fertile southwestern Cape region as well as its more arid hinterland to the northwest, where rainfall did not permit crop cultivation, but they may once have grazed their stock on the more luxuriant central grasslands of Southern Africa. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. Cattle raising led to increased social stratification between rich and poor and established new divisions of labour between men and women; the accumulation of cattle and the continuous site occupation inherent in cereal production enabled the storage of wealth and the deployment of more organized political power. An interesting case is South Africa. French West Africa. Linguistic evidence suggests that the languages of the later Khoekhoe (the so-called Khoisan languages) originated in one of the hunter-gatherer languages of northern Botswana. In August 2009, four of those countries signed the agreement (Madagascar, Mauritius, Seychelles and Zimbabwe). The island nation of Madagascar is excluded because of its distinct language and cultural heritage.
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