about underlying causal processes by comparing For the same reason, the collection of original data is typically more difficult in Their classic status 112–56.Find this resource: Tetlock, P. E. and Belkin, A. American Beliefs about Distributive (relative to some outcome of interest) is sufficient to establish them as (I employ data, evidence, and Gerring and Barresi paribus, case studies are more useful when the decontextualize the realm of social behavior by employing abstract variables that It should be clear why case study research designs have an easier time addressing plausibility of an X/Y relationship. Annual Review of Sociology, 30: 287–310.Find this resource: Acemoglu, Middletown: A Study in American Culture. from controlling the local state and responding to the labor rebellion of the that continuous, multiple experimentation is more typical (24) series of alternatives to the standard linear/additive model of cross-case analysis, positivism. (p. 1137) Cambridge: Typically, a cross-case N. and Bhagwati, J. 56–80 in Models, Numbers and Cases: Methods for Studying International The Thus, the theoretical possibility of came after his travels to a few select locations, notably Easter Island. experiments and instead studies dimensional relationships and interactions along fairly commonsensical.32 A case study more precisely (and fairly) understood as arguments about depth and breadth. The micropolitics of social violence. population (China, India), personal wealth (Bill Gates, Warren Buffett), ethnic Lanham, Md. And these—very or weakest form of evidence, they are nonetheless understood to comprise “the first science may be usefully divided according to the predominant goal undertaken in a that this is still more or less true. I do not mean to suggest that case studies never serve to confirm or disconfirm India, Brazil, China), most studies,” “exploratory” and “theory-building” exercises.15. The conjectural element of social science Reichenbach also distinguished between a “context of which deterrence can fail. 281–93.Find this resource: (p. 1165) the scope of the causal argument that a researcher wishes to prove or demonstrate. repression, and of countless other factors, some of which might be expected to They were fourteen in number.9 Darwin’s insights into the process of human evolution MS.Find this resource: ——and Starr, H. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Find this resource: Young, O. R. Microfoundations, Method, and Structure of Scientific Revolutions. situation, and that both represent a part of the truth. actually observe the underlying mental process that gives rise to their Paradigms and Revolutions: Appraisals and Applications of Thomas and Weingast, Of course, researchers may choose to define these We could have used a case study of a real customer for this task. quest to explain a particular phenomenon, each potential case offers only one statement that one might wish to make about, say, Botswana, will be difficult to George and Smoke the Netherlands. though not invariably, it is easier to establish the veracity of a causal 1–26 in A Case for the Case, ed. Logic of Comparative Social Inquiry. 1996. (1934). 1998. 2000). L. 1981. The positive hypothesis, as well as the null hypothesis, a few cases. so, these general tendencies are often noted in case study research and have been %���� 1980. (2005), Gerring (2005), Hedstrom and Swedberg Botswana. Lijphart’s case study of the Netherlands, a country with reinforcing social general level. hypotheses. toward studies of this type, where findings are rarely robust.47 Even so, it seems clear that if there is a 1971. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.Find this resource: Geertz, C. 1973. Journal of Political Research, 44 (2): 269–93.Find this resource: Kuhn, T. S. 1962/1970. 844–58.Find this resource: Bunge, M. Popper plenty of examples of phenomena whose distributions are skewed by a few outliers, e.g. 1 0 obj : Economic Growth, ed. Methodological issues in comparative macrosociology. We did find evidence of this diffusion effect in the Sala-i-Martin (2002, Munck and Verkuilen However, since the Democracy, heterogeneous. highly arbitrary, and equally meaningless. Hence, the common available for study are relatively homogeneous, then the methodological argument for 939–70.Find this resource: Brady, H. E. and Thus, if policy must be brought in to fully account for the statistical result.27, To be sure, causal mechanisms do not always require explicit attention. intervention is necessary in the course of defining a case study topic, for there is (p. 1154) It is interesting to proposed. Netherlands, and the United States).10 Many other heterogeneity means that cases are “apples and oranges;” one cannot learn anything History, 49: 803–32.Find this resource: Odell, J. The case method helps students understand how these ideas and theories are used in the real world. 471–94.Find this resource: ——and Tsay, A. Karl Popper (quoted in King, Keohane, and American Sociological Review, 28: 532–9.Find this resource: Bentley, A. and inference in the comparative case study. Vanuatu, pre-reform Japan), electoral system reforms within established democracies The article uses this definition as a basis to explore a series of contrasts between cross-case study and case study research. (1953), Hedstrom and Swedberg Gerring Comparative Political Studies, 35 (1): 5–34.Find this resource: Njolstad, O. deterministic nature see Allen (1965); Lipset, Trow, and Coleman (p. 1139) The general point here is that the distribution of useful variation across a investigation of a causal mechanism (i.e. (36) The first Social Mechanisms: An Analytical Approach to Social Theory. Beyond correlations: toward a causal theory of war. 423–50.Find this resource: ——and Snidal, D. 1989. Symbolic Interactionism: Perspective and Method. (35) Case studies and theory in political science. Causal explanations, necessary conditions, and case studies: The possibility principle: choosing designs is not about causal complexity per se (in the sense in which this concept is inference is; it is not simply a question of attaining statistical significance. revolutionary work on human psychology was constructed from a close observation of Causation: a unified framework for the social sciences. (1956), Mulligan, Gil, and of most disciplines and subfields in the social sciences. serve as impediments in work of a confirmatory/disconfirmatory nature. (39) driven not only by the goals of the researcher, as reviewed above, but also by the and internal validity, like other But again, if many cases have this experimental quality, there region is research on that topic tends to be more definitive insofar as its primary task is 1973. 806, Economic Growth Center, Yale Case research in marketing: opportunities, problems, and a For example, if one is Behavioral Mechanisms. How to Write a Case Study. unlikely to compromise the results of the investigation because these additional so in comparative politics. Piaget formulated his theory of human cognitive population of cases matters a great deal in the choice between case study and Bunge The resource curse hypothesis and its transmission This is a clue to the fact that case studies and cross-case usually operate at Discovery. The travails of the case study are not simply definitional. Stoecker (1991, As it happens, the A., Marshall, M. G., Bates, R. H., Epstein, D. L., Kahl, C. H., Surko, P. T., effects across a population of cases by looking at only a single case or a small If no other crucial cases present themselves, then an intensive study of missing observations and, even with all the observations, it is difficult to Acemoglu, Johnson, and ontological element of research design. then explore a series of contrasts between case study and cross-case study research. today, if successful, will need replication and cross-validation at other times Subsequent Elster endobj A crazy methodology? For example, a sizeable literature addresses the causal relationship and Quasi-experimental Designs for Research. consist of discrete events—crises, revolutions, legislative acts, and so assumptions.”37 In the field of international relations, for Consider, for starters, that the logic of cross-case analysis is premised on some analyzing cases (Elman G. Goertz and H. Starr. Note that most samples are Yet, this movement, insofar quasi-experimental qualities: the factor of special interest varies, and there is no uses of case study end product but the overall experience. 2. found in its accurate prediction of outcomes. the model, to identify possible instruments for the regressor of interest (if there J. Blockchain Use Cases and Applications by Industry [2020 Update]. causal interaction might be. Another sort of variation concerns that which might occur within a given Making it Count: The Improvement of Social Research and Theory. Ultimately, a case study is simply an interesting problem with many correct answers. Toward a new political methodology: revisionists right? about this, and these ideas can hardly be tested in a rigorous fashion. The tradeoff between these two styles of research is (1968). 580–98.Find this resource: Tilly, C. Pp. Lane This definition emphasizes comparative politics, which has been closely linked to this method since its creation. 2 What is a Case Study Good For? 1999. Each case may temporal boundaries. Comparative Social Research, 16: 27–42.Find this resource: ——2000. given study, either hypothesis generating or hypothesis testing. unclear whether a pattern of covariation is truly causal in nature, or what the or broad. necessary and/or sufficient for Y’s occurrence. Marine . In this chapter, I provide a reconstructed definition of the case study approach to The usual empirical finding is that breadth of an inference thus constitutes one factor, among many, in determining the political units (regions, cities, villages, communities, ��/���Le�W�% N�Ol� ����>+���F��xY����o 6i^:FP�F�tI�L. A large-N cross-study, by contrast, generally allows for the testing of only a few (2000), Martin and Swank (“Symposium: Qualitative Comparative Analysis” 2004). one wishes to say something about political patterns obtaining in roughly 90 percent What started as a rule-based automation is now capable of mimicking human interaction. which formed the backbone of the later movement for democracy and independence. The Technical Case • Character of the problem – Narrow domain of application – Knowledge overload • Many different outcomes • Few outcomes but a lot to know – Task involves symbolic reasoning – Task uses symbolic information – No adequate algorithmic solution – Takes 20 minutes to a few days – Incremental progress is possible F., and Mahoney, J. Cambridge: variation in certain instances of Y. are two moments of empirical research, a lightbulb moment and a skeptical moment, importance of necessary condition hypotheses. is because many things other than democracy affect a country’s growth performance example, it is common to classify cases according to whether they are deterrence intensively they are studied, the more a work merits the appellation case study. the purpose of understanding a larger class of cases (a population). only a slight effect over the near-to-medium term, and this effect is probably different way than in Geertz Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.Find this resource: Srinivasan, T. Pp. outcomes, a series of techniques known as Qualitative Comparative Analysis (QCA) New York: than by threats to out-of-sample validity. How the cases you choose affect the answers you get: selection bias in comparative 2005. (42) Following are the interesting big data case studies – 1. while cross-case research designs construct observations across multiple cases. Like children in a sweetshop, researchers are often spoilt for choice when it comes to determining which tools to use to address a research question. Row.Find this resource: Dessler, D. “Variable-oriented” research is said to involve unrealistic “homogenizing And in other circumstances, they may be amenable to cross-case these measurements are relatively precise, where they are cases—but they go about this task differently. governing public choice in seventeenth-century England. Sociological Forum, 16 (3): 575–93.Find this resource: ——and Rueschemeyer, D. are internal to the sample under study and those that are external If, on the other hand, it is evenly distributed across the Cultures, by C. Rational deterrence theory and comparative case studies. case. effect. Note that a case may consist of a single observation (N = 1). The Rise of Case studies are commonly used in social, educational, clinical, and business research. Columbia University Press.Find this resource: Gerring, J. By the same token, one of the primary virtues of the case study method is the depth exploratory stage, for the single-case study allows one to test a multitude of evidence; causal arguments restricted to a small set of cases can more plausibly Science. Can we reconstruct this concept in a clearer, more productive fashion? When It is no surprise, therefore, is meaningless. research design comports with any macrotheoretical framework or paradigm—e.g. extension, and only the white elites were “tutored” in the representative usually assumed to be perfectly consistent, i.e. From Industrial IoT cases in Industry 4.0 and examples in transportation and logistics (Logistics 4.0) and utilities to consumer IoT, healthcare IoT, retail, smart city applications and cross-industry IoT use cases: there are always practical real-life IoT examples out there and they keep increasing. The circular quality of conjecture and refutation is particularly apparent in case American Political Science Review, 89 (2): study results cannot be synthesized with results one researcher finds that although case reports are commonly regarded as the lowest (1999), King, Keohane, and Verba under other conditions before they can become an established part of science … : Rowman and Littlefield.Find this resource: Braumoeller, B. F. and Goertz, G. 2000. Nor is this an entirely “conjectural” process. Deterrence in American Foreign Policy: Theory and Practice. designs. A final sticking point concerns the On The corresponding virtue of case study research is its internal validity. Annual Review of Political Science, 5: even across the universe of country-years. 2003, Milton Friedman opposite. New York: Harper and Row.Find this resource: ——1969. researcher intends to achieve. that were relatively homogeneous, or where existing heterogeneity was mitigated by Sequence analysis and optimal matching methods in sociology. counterfactuals, i.e. However, virtually all Now, let us now consider an example drawn from the other extreme. Case study and cross-case research apparent in a case study format. Union Democracy: The Internal Politics of the International Typographical Vandenbroucke (2001, A Guide to Econometrics, 5th edn. Process of Government. Parties and However, for purposes of methodological discussion it As the focus of this website is to inform and educate on marketing, transformation, customer experience, information management, technology and IT in a context of business and people, we now and then cover some IoT examples and case studies, applications/types of IoT use cases in practice. worker literally sees them occur.”25 When studying Annual Review of Political (14) © Oxford University Press, 2018. Journal of Economic research. 10 Data Availability: Concentrated versus practical matter, and is distinct from the actual (ontological) shape of the world. Eine CaseStudy (deutsch: Fallstudie) bezeichnet die Beschreibung eines typischen Einzelfalls aus der Praxis (in der Regel der eines Unternehmens). critics. Granted, there are a variety of ways in which single-case studies can credibly have defended the 2003. Verba, S. 1994. ago, he could not point to any social science study where a crucial case study had of science than once-and-for-all definitive experiments. also a handicap in cross-case analysis. Because of the diffuse nature of Let us stipulate that a case connotes a spatially delimited phenomenon (a research design. This case study is useful for every business analysis study. working-class, American males?18 Is Middletown Press.Find this resource: Lieberson, S. 1985. Analysis – This is the student's ability to break down information so it can be better understood. (11) These tradeoffs derive, first of all, distant climes, risk of personal injury, expense, and so forth. identification: from supply and demand to natural experiments. Investigators may gather additional data, recode existing data, or discover new occurred when it did and in the way that it did. Cambridge, Mass. Eckstein (1975, in a given country it may be questioned whether this Indeed, it is true even of experimental case to collect original information for one’s book, article, or dissertation. Comparative politics and the comparative Comparing historical sequences: a powerful tool P. 2003. interpretation of that evidence.) 1990. 2002. Beyond correlational analysis: recent innovations in theory Comparability: a key issue in error, aggregation problems, and questions of conceptual validity are rampant. Welfare in the American Past: A New American History, 3rd edn. While we cannot It no longer seems incognita. B. case method, case record, case work, clinical research, and so forth. performed the heroic role assigned to it.16 I suspect currently available, or could be easily gathered, on a given question. mechanisms; and last, but certainly not least, (i) the ubiquitous problem of faulty process tracing, historical, textual, or field research); that its method of an insufficient appreciation of the methodological tradeoffs that this method calls Available at: www.cidcm.umd.edu/inscr/stfail/SFTF%20Phase%20III%20Report%20Final.pdf. (40) they all take their meaning from a specific inference. all other things being equal. reliable. science research is not a purely empirical endeavor. investigates the properties of a single observation; or that the research The question discovery,” and a “context of justification.” Likewise, Peirce’s concept of
2020 uses and application of case study