National minority schools in Ukraine will be shut down, and education in the Russian language will be substantially reduced in Latvia, where the reform has a more pronounced Russophobic character. The Russian language will remain for such subjects as "The Russian Language," "The Russian Literature" and "subjects linked to culture and history." Yat-reform. In December 1917 the People's Commissariat of Education, headed by A. V. Lunacharsky, issued a decree stating, "All state and government institutions and schools without exception should carry out the transition to the new orthography without delay. No distinction was drawn between the vernacular language and the liturgical, though the latter was based on South Slavic rather than Eastern Slavic norms. [10] The 1956 codification additionally included a clarification of new rules for punctuation developed during the 1930s, and which had not been mentioned in the 1918 decree. Russian spelling’ve reformed on this principle. In: Ginsburgh, V., Weber, S. Historical background of constitutional reforms and today developments will be discussed, basing on concrete examples of these developments. [15][12][16], Orthographic reforms of the Russian alphabet. Offered by Saint Petersburg State University. From then and on the underlying logic of language reforms in Russia reflected primarily the considerations of standardizing and streamlining language norms and rules in order to ensure the language's role as a practical tool of communication and administration.[1]. They boast a strong economy, a rare political crises and the successful overcoming of economic upheaval. The story of the letter yat (ѣ) and its elimination from the Russian alphabet makes for an interesting footnote in Russian cultural history. As the language evolved, several letters, notably the yuses (Ѫ, Ѭ, Ѧ, Ѩ) were gradually and unsystematically discarded from both secular and church usage over the next centuries. Harder with five consonants – what sign to replace them, as such a change will affect the pronunciation, is unknown. The Russian Orthodox Church is preparing for a reform of its liturgical language, and a draft document on the role of Church Slavonic in modern church life has been circulated among dioceses and is available for discussion on the internet, RIA Novosti reports. The need for reform of the Russian language in 2021, the authors argue interesting pattern – again, Recalling the words of the Russian Minister Vasilyeva. Shakhmatov headed the Assembly for Considering Simplification of the Orthography whose proposals of 11 May 1917 formed the basis of the new rules soon adopted by the Ministry of Popular Education.[3]. It seemed to the new tsar, Alexander II (reigned 1855–81), that the dangers to public order of dismantling the existing system, which had deterred… 4. Shakhmatov headed the Assembly for Considering Simplification of the Orthography whose proposals of May 11, 1917 formed the basis of the new rules soon adopted by the Ministry of Popular Education. Authors., 1913 (region 1914). To change the identity documents, diplomas, technical passport of the car? The state's focus on proper instruction in Russian, as the national language of ethnic Russians, as the state language, and as the language of international communication continues to the present day. During the Soviet period, though each of the republics had its own official language, Russian enjoyed a superior status. The printed Russian alphabet began to assume its modern shape when Peter I introduced his civil script type reform in 1708. Any attempt to change the civilizational code lead to unrest and disasters. The latest reform of the language dates back to the early 1970s. [3], Responses to the article pointed to the need to simplify Russian spelling due to the use of Russian as the language of international communication in the Soviet Union and an increased study of Russian in the Eastern Bloc as well as in the West. [11][12] The article proposed extensive reform to move closer to a phonetic representation of the language. B is no longer mentioned at the end of words and parts of compound words. The reform resulted in some economy in writing and typesetting, due to the exclusion of Ъ at the end of words—by the reckoning of Lev Uspensky, text in the new orthography was shorter by one-thirtieth.[7]. Other articles where Great Reforms is discussed: Russia: Emancipation and reform: Defeat in Crimea made Russia’s lack of modernization clear, and the first step toward modernization was the abolition of serfdom. The language reform is being phased in; by September 2021 all 16 to 18-year-olds will be taught only in Latvian. In December 1942, the use of letter Ё was made mandatory by Decree No. Another confusion – the names that include these letters. A common practice was the removal of not just the letters І, Ѳ, and Ѣ from printing offices, but also Ъ. However, with the replacement of Ѧ with Я and the effective elimination of several letters (Ѯ, Ѱ, Ѡ) and all diacritics and accents (with the exception of й) from secular usage and the use of Arabic numerals instead of Cyrillic numerals[2] there appeared for the first time a visual distinction between Russian and Church Slavonic writing. However, about the economy, development and social benefits of a Papuan tribe hardly knows. Online approx 110 millionInternet users speak Russian. With the strength of the historic tradition diminishing, Russian spelling in the 18th century became rather inconsistent, both in practice and in theory, as Mikhail Lomonosov advocated a morphological orthography and Vasily Trediakovsky a phonemic one. In that year the Orthographic commission of the Institute of the Russian language (Academy of Sciences of the USSR), headed by Viktor Vinogradov, apart from the withdrawal of some spelling exceptions, suggested to: leave one partitive soft sign; always write "i" after "tse" The Russian orthography has been reformed officially and unofficially by changing the Russian alphabet over the course of the history of the Russian language.
2020 reform of russian language